A Study of the Characteristics of Meditative Techniques according to Thich Nhat Hanh.
|Authors:||釋女萬義||Keywords:||一行禪師;禪法特色;現法樂住;早期經典;華嚴觀法;Thich Nhat Hanh;Chan(Zen) features;merrily abiding in current existence;primitive scriptures;HuaYan meditation||Issue Date:||Jul-2021||Abstract:||縱觀當代流行的許多「正念禪修」，大部分源自上座部傳統，如馬哈希與葛印卡的「內觀禪法」，而一行禪師（Thích Nhất Hạnh）身為當今國際最具宗教影響力的僧人之一，同樣以「正念禪修」聞名於世。其著作如《正念的奇跡》、《觀照的奇跡》等全球暢銷，影響不少人投入「正念禪修」。也許我們會以為一行禪法也是源於上座部禪修傳統，然而事實卻並非如此。一行禪師實為中國臨濟宗第42代傳人暨越南了觀禪派第8代法嗣，早年受臨濟禪法訓練的同時，也學習過天台止觀。儘管如此，他一生所極力弘揚的並不是臨濟禪或天台止觀，而是類似南傳的「正念禪法」或卡巴金（Jon Kabat-Zinn）正在提倡的「正念減壓」。是什麼因緣讓一行禪師有如此的轉變呢？這是否表示他放棄了原來學習過的中國禪、天台止觀等漢傳佛教精髓？如果僅僅是這樣的話，一行禪法有何特色可言？以至於世界各地眾多不同身份地位、宗教文化的人皆向其學習禪法？此為本文主要的問題意識，分三個步驟考察之：一、釐清一行禪師的生平及其所處的時代背景；二、從一行禪師之人生經歷、時代脈絡以及他所接觸的人與事，探討其正念禪法的促成因緣；三、釐清其禪法特色。研究結果顯示：（一）一行禪師所弘揚「正念禪法」，看似上座部禪法，但其源頭實在漢傳臨濟禪，兼受華嚴與天台教觀之影響。長年的抗戰與救難過程，迫使一行禪師反思有效的修行方法，最終在早期經典中找到回應痛苦之道——從「保持正念」通往「現法樂住」。（二）一行禪法的特色，主要有四：1.禪教並重、2. 基於「現法樂住」、3.早期經典與大乘禪觀融合：依於早期經典、配合大乘禪觀、4.禪修方法的創新——不存在於北傳，也不屬於南傳，或者已在南北傳中流失的禪修方法。一行禪法融合這些特色，其目標是適應現代人所需，治療與轉化由新時代所引起的痛苦和疾病。
Among various contemporary mindfulness meditations, most of them derive from Theravāda Buddhism, such as the vipassanā meditation(內觀禪法) teached by Mahāsī Sayādaw and S.N.Goenka. Thích Nhất Hạnh, one of the most influential monks across the world and as renowned as his mindfulness meditation, affects numerous people to practice mindfulness meditation with his books like The Miracle of Mindfulness and The Sun My Heart: From Mindfulness to Insight Contemplation. People probably thought that his mindfulness meditation derives from Theravāda tradition as well, but actually it is not. Thich Nhat Hanh is in fact the 42th successor to Chinese LinJi school(臨濟宗) and the 8th successor to Vietnamese Thien phai Lieu Quan (了觀禪派). He received LinJi Chan(臨濟禪) as well as TienTai Zhi Guan (天台止觀)in his early years. Despite this, he has devoted himself to propagating not LinJi Chan or TienTai Zhi Guan but what is more like Theravada Buddhism or Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction(MBSR) from Jon Kabat-Zinn. What made such a change? Does it mean that he gave away those essences from Chinese Buddhism? If the answer is yes, then what makes his meditation so unique as to appeal to people of all statuses across the world to learn it? This is problematic and what this essay will try to elaborate. Three steps are adopted to explore this problem in this essay. First, clarify Thich Nhat Hanh’s life and the historical contexts he lives in. Then, from his life experiences and contexts he lives in, probe into the reasons for his mindfulness meditation. Last, explicate its features. Going through all three steps, the conclusions are as follows: I. Thich Nhat Hanh’s mindfulness meditation seemingly is Theravada Buddhism, but it actually originates in LinJi school, with influence from HuaYan school and TienTai school. Many years of war and salvage pushed Thich Nhat Hanh to puzzle over effective practices, and eventually he found from early scriptures (Āgama and Nikāya) the response to Dukkha(苦)—through being mindful, merrily abiding in the present moment (Sanskrit: drsta-dharma-sukha-vihāra，現法樂住). II. There are four features in ThíchNhấtHạnh’s mindfulness meditation: 1. Meditation and teaching are equally valued. 2. Merrily abiding in current existence is the cornerstone. 3. Early scriptures integrate with Mahayana meditation: in accordance with early scriptures and in coordination with Mahayana meditation. 4. Made in meditation are innovations, which can’t be seen or had lost in either Northern Buddhism or Southern Buddhism(Theravada Buddhism). With these features, Thich Nhat Hanh’s meditation aims to meet modern people’s needs, cure and transform agonies and diseases in modern times.
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