|Title:||《般舟三昧經》之起源與傳播研究||Authors:||釋覺心||Keywords:||般舟三昧經 般舟三昧 文殊問經 華嚴經 入法界品;Pratyutpanna-samādhi Pratyutpanna-samādhi-sūtra Avataṃsakasūtra Gaṇḍavyūha Mañjuśrīparipṛcchāsutra||Issue Date:||15-Jul-2022||Abstract:||《般舟三昧經》是初期大乘的重要經典之一，宣説定中見十方現在佛的法門。此經源遠流長，集出前後經歷了不少變化。針對這些變化，本文所要探討的議題分爲四個面向：一、此經集出之前，般舟三昧思想的醞釀情形；二、支婁迦讖譯《般舟三昧經》多種版本之形成因緣；三、《文殊問經．囑累品》採用《般舟三昧經》的内容並加以修改的情形；四、《華嚴經．入法界品》「德雲比丘章」與「解脫長者章」採用《般舟三昧經》的内容並加以革新的情形。本文採用「概念釐清—歷史—文獻學」的進路，以文本比對、校勘、確定系譜、考證等為主要方法，順著歷史的發展脈絡，探討《般舟三昧經》的文本與思想演變。研究結果顯示：一、般舟三昧的出現與「十方現在有佛」思想有密切關係。佛教部派時期，存在著「一時、一界、一佛」與「一時、多界、多佛」二種主張之議論。後者經過一段時間的醞釀，逐漸從理論發展成禪觀，形成般舟三昧。修此三昧者能於三昧中親見十方現在諸佛。此禪觀方法後來被記載於《般舟三昧經》；二、支婁迦讖譯三卷本《般舟三昧經》現存有四種版本，分別是收於《趙城金藏》、《高麗大藏經初刻本輯刊》、《再雕高麗藏》及宋、元、明《大藏經》。從高麗守其《校正別錄》發現第五種版本。它們並非獨立形成，而是在一個持續校訂過程中形成。其形成原因與支婁迦讖三次翻譯此經有關。後人將新、舊譯本結合，並依據對應梵本持續修訂。在不同的階段，流出不同的修訂本，分別成為宋代《開寶藏》不同時期刻本之所依。後來，其他各種漢文大藏經依《開寶藏》不同時期印本作為底本而刊刻，因而各藏所見版本有所差異；三、《般舟三昧經》集出之後，某人將經中所述的「般舟三昧」實踐方法加以整理、摘要和組織化，形成文本「Y」。「Y」本身在傳播過程中持續變化，於不同時間點被納入《文殊問經．囑累品》及《十住毘婆沙論》，因此兩者的內容高度一致，但前者有修改的痕跡，如改「颰陀和」為「文殊師利」。智顗引《文殊問經》建立「常坐三昧」時，並未察覺它與《般舟三昧經》的關係；四、《華嚴經．入法界品》「德雲比丘章」及「解脫長者章」採用《般舟三昧經》的內容，加入新元素，形成新法門——普門光明觀察正念諸佛三昧、攝一切佛剎無量旋陀羅尼三昧門、如來無礙莊嚴法門。這三者有異於「般舟三昧」，不可等而視之。 Pratyutpanna-samādhi-sūtra (abbreviation of Pratyutpanna-buddha- saṃmukhāvasthita-samādhi-sūtra) is one of the important sūtras of the early Mahāyāna, which proclaims the samādhi of direct encounter with the buddhas of the present. This sūtra has a long history and experienced many changes before and after its compilation. The topics to be discussed in this paper are related to these changes, including four aspects: 1.the incubating process regarding the concept of pratyutpanna-samādhi before the compilation of this sūtra; 2. the formation of various Chinese versions of Pratyutpanna-samādhi-sūtra translated by Lokakṣema; 3. the contents of Pratyutpanna-samādhi-sūtra being adopted and modified in Mañjuśrīparipṛcchāsūtra; 4. The contents of Pratyutpanna-samādhi-sūtra being adopted and renovated in the chapters of Meghaśrī and Muktaka in Gaṇḍavyūha of Avataṃsakasūtra. This article adopts the approach of “conceptual clarification-history-philology”, using text comparison, collation, genealogy determination, textual research, etc. as the main methods, tries to explore the text and ideological evolution of the Pratyutpanna-samādhi-sūtra according to the historical context. The research results show that: 1. The appearance of the pratyutpanna-samādhi is closely related to the thought of “there are present Buddhas abiding in the worlds of ten directions”. During the period of Abhidharma Buddhism, there were two kinds of arguments: “one time, one world, one Buddha” and “one time, many worlds, many Buddhas”. After a period of gestation, the latter gradually developed from theory to practical meditation method called “Pratyutpanna-buddha-saṃmukhāvasthita-samādhi”. The practitioner who successfully attained this samādhi can personally see all Buddhas in ten directions. This meditation method was later recorded in the Pratyutpanna-samādhi-sūtra. 2. There are four Chinese versions of Pratyutpanna-samādhi-sūtra in three juan translated by Lokakṣema, which can be seen in Zhaocheng Canon（趙城藏）, the Collection and publication of the First Koreana Tripiṭaka （高麗大藏經初刻本輯刊）, Second Koreana Tripiṭaka （再雕高麗藏） and Chinese Canon produced in Song, Yuan and Ming Dynasties. The fifth version was found in Shou-qi's Jiao Zheng Bie Lu（校正別錄）. All these versions are not formed independently, but in a continuous revision process. The main reason for their formation is related to the three translations of this sutra by Lokakṣema. Later generations combined the new and old translations and continued to revise them according to the corresponding Sanskrit texts. Consequently, different revisions were formed, which became the basis for the engraving of Kaibao Canon (開寶藏) in different periods of the Song Dynasty. Later, other versions of Chinese Canon were engraved and published according to the printed copies of Kaibao Canon in different periods. Therefore, the versions seen in different Chinese Canon are different. 3. After the Pratyutpanna-samādhi-sūtra has been compiled, someone tried to rearrange, summarize and organize the practical methods of pratyutpanna-samādhi as elaborated in the sūtra. As a result, an unknown text “Y” was formed. “Y” kept changing during the process of dissemination, and being incorporated into Mañjuśrīparipṛcchāsūtra（文殊問經） and Shi Zhu Pi Po Sha Lun （十住毘婆沙論） at different points of time. Therefore, both of them have highly consistent content. Anyway, the former has some traces of modification, such as changing "Bhadrapāla" to "Mañjuśrī". When Zhi Yi quoted Mañjuśrīparipṛcchāsūtra to establish “constant sitting samādhi （常坐三昧）” he didn't realize its relationship with Pratyutpanna-samādhi-sūtra. 4. In the chapters of Meghaśrī and Muktaka, the composer of Gaṇḍavyūha adopted some contents of Pratyutpanna-samādhi-sūtra, added new elements, and created new methods, including: samantamukhasarvārambaṇavijñaptisamavasaraṇāloka-buddhānusmṛti, sarvabuddhakṣetrasamavasaraṇa-anantāvartadhāraṇī, asaṅgavyūha-tathāgatavimokṣa. However, these new methods are different from pratyutpanna-samādhi and cannot be regarded as the same.||URI:||https://ir.dila.edu.tw//handle/123456789/1209|
|Appears in Collections:||佛教學系|
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