Body Thinking of the Samurai Scholars and Yõmeigaku Scholars in Tokugawa Japan
|Authors:||張崑將||Keywords:||身體觀;功夫論;中江藤樹;大鹽中齋;日本陽明學兵學;Body thinking;Oshio Chuzai;Nakae Tõju;Yõmeigaku;Yamaga Sokõ||Issue Date:||Jul-2004||Publisher:||法鼓人文社會學院||Journal:||法鼓人文學報||Journal Issue:||1||Journal Pages:||89-112||Abstract:||本文寫作主要目的，在於比較中國孟子思路的儒家與日本兵學者、陽明學者的三種身體觀。首先在第一、二節分析中國孟子思路一系是一種「作為道德學意義的身體觀」，其實踐功夫論是「由內到外」或「先質後文」，並兼論日本神話中傳統的淨穢身體觀，與日本人追求「洗心」、「純一無雜」的思維有關。第三節分析日本兵學者山鹿素行（1622～1685）的「作為政治學意義的身體」，強調「滅私奉公的身體」而有朝向「無我身體」的思維。第四節則分析日本陽明學中江藤樹（1608～1648）與大鹽中齋（1793～1837）的「作為宗教學意義的身體」，這種身體觀有走向「虛化身體」的傾向。不論是「虛化身體」或是「無我身體」，二者身體觀的性質，皆有宗教學意義的「獻身」思想，而且其實踐功夫論模式均是「由外到內」的形式體踐，進而內化到自己生命而強調「身心一如」。最後在第五節結論中認為日本這兩種「虛我」與「無我」的身體觀，與日本重視神體與無限概念的自然觀思維有密切的關聯。
The purpose of this paper is to compare the body thinking of Chinese Confucianism along the line of Mencius with those of Japanese samurai-scholars and Ymeigaku scholars. To begin with, in the first and second sections are given a definition of Mencius-thought as a body thinking in a moral sense, practicing of which is from the inner to the outer. And the traditional pure-dirty view and body thinking in Japan myths in association with the “mental purification” pursued by the Japanese are also discussed. The third section analyzes the theory of the Japanese samurai-scholar, Yamaga Sok□ (山鹿素行，1622-1685). He thought about body in a political sense, emphasizing an individual body that was selfish-less and public-minded, moving in the direction of non-egoistic body. Then fourth section explores the theory advanced by the Japanese Y□meigaku scholars. Nakae T□ju (中江藤樹，1608-1648) and Oshio Chuzai (大鹽中齋，1793-1837), of body in a religious sense. This body thinking had a nihilistic inclination. Be it a non-egoistic body or a nihilistic body, it was abundant in a religiously “body-sacrificing” thought. Its way of materializing the effect at self-cultivation was absolutely from the inner to the outer and then identified this thought with one’s own life, thereby making one’s mind and body as one, It is then concluded in the fifth section that Japanese body thinking concerned were, to a great extent, interrelated with the traditional Japanese naturalistic thought that put great emphasis upon divinity and the infinite.
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