Mandala and Meditation: Jung Encountered with Buddhism
|Authors:||楊儒賓||Keywords:||觀想;曼荼羅;榮格;佛教;Meditation;Mandala;Jung;Buddhism||Issue Date:||Jul-2004||Publisher:||法鼓人文社會學院||Journal:||法鼓人文學報||Journal Issue:||1||Journal Pages:||221-252||Abstract:||榮格視佛陀為偉大的身心治療者，他本人也從佛經中獲得許多的幫助，本文探討榮格與佛教的關係。首先，筆者要從榮格的傳記著眼，處理榮格本人與印度、佛陀的因緣，並探討他對幾本重要佛經的解讀；其次，筆者比較佛典的「曼荼羅」及「觀想」和榮格的「曼荼羅」及「能動的想像」這兩個核心觀念的異同；最後，筆者指出榮格雖然很欣賞佛教，榮格的重要概念如曼荼羅原型、能動的想像、自性（self）、集體無意識等等，也大致可在佛典上找到相應的詞彙，但由於榮格不承認人有洞照超越界的能力，也缺乏精細而自力的工夫論，因此，榮格思想與佛教教義仍有極大的差異，這樣的差異是相當關鍵性的。
Jung viewed Buddha as a great physical-psychical therapist; he himself obtained lots of helps from the sutras, too. This article researched the relationship between Jung and Buddhism. First, I disposed Jung’s relationship with India and Buddha from the aspect of his biography, and discussed his interpretation of several important sutras. Second, I compared the affinities and the differences between the “mandala” and “meditation” of the sutras and Jung’s “mandala” and “active imagination”. Finally, I pointed out that Jung appreciated Buddhism and his important concepts, such as the archetype of mandala, active imagination, self, collective unconsciousness, can be found their corresponsive terms in the sutras, but ht lacked an elaborate methodology of self-cultivation and ht didn’t admit human has the ability of penetrating into the transcendental world, either. Thus there is a great difference between Jung’s thoughts and Buddhist doctrine. Such a difference is very critical.
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