Perspectives on Mind and Body form Buddhist Systems of Practice
|Authors:||釋惠敏||Keywords:||三學;順解脫分;順決擇分;減緣減行;身心轉換;七種作意;悟入唯識性;Three disciplines;Causes that lead to liberation;Causes of liberation from choice according with wisdom;Reducing meditative objects and attributes;Transformation of body and mind;Warmth;Pinnacle;Forbearance;The highest worldly wisdom;Seven mental orientations;Mind-only||Issue Date:||Dec-2005||Publisher:||法鼓人文社會學院||Journal:||法鼓人文學報||Journal Issue:||2||Journal Pages:||57-96||Abstract:||佛教對於從凡夫乃至成佛的「身心關係」與「身心轉換」的修行過程，有其源遠流長、甚深廣大的理論體系與身心經驗基礎，頗值得我們研究探討。本文將按照印度佛教發展史演變順序，探究其不同階位聖者之修行的身心觀，以及轉凡成聖之修行階位的身心變化。希望藉這些佛教的身心關係的議題的考察，有助於現代社會對心靈環保與人文關懷的推展。 初期佛教之修行體系是以「三學」(增上戒學、增上心學、增上慧學)與初果(須陀洹、預流)、二果(斯陀含、一往來)、三果(阿那含、不還果)；四果(阿羅漢)為四種基本修行果位來建構「身修」、「心修」、「慧修」之修行的身心觀。 聲聞乘(部派佛教)之「說一切有部」將聖者分為「見道」(預流向)、「修道」(預流果、一來向、一來果、不向、不還果、阿羅漢向)、「無學道」(阿羅漢果)三道。對於凡夫的修行位次，「說一切有部」論書提到三善根：(1)修布施、持戒、四無量心等「順福分」、(2)欣求涅槃、厭背生死「增上意樂」之「順解脫分」、分(3)見道以前，觀四諦及修十六行相之’warmth’(煖), The ‘pinnacle’(頂), ‘forbearance’(忍), and The ‘highest worldly wisdom’(世第一法)四種「順決擇分」。其中，大約是1.8128秒～6.8128秒的時間，修行者就會從「忍」位入聖者曘初階位「見道」，這是佛教對從凡兼身心性質瞬間轉換聖者身心的修行過程的描述。 瑜伽行派(菩薩乘佛教)的修行體系，將「凡夫」、「有學」、「無學」等三階段配合三界區分為十三種補特伽羅，而且可推論出條行路線的各種組合。在《瑜伽師地論》＜聲聞地＞對於四諦十六行相的方法與修行階段，是以了相、勝解、遠離、觀察、攝樂、加行究竟、加行究竟果等七種作意來說明。其中，「勝解作意」相當於《大毘婆沙論》之「順決擇分」的四箇修行階位。《攝大乘論釋》、《成唯識論》、《大乘莊嚴經論》認為此四箇修行階位是悟入唯識性時，並且以四種三摩地(定)說明。
Buddhism has a long history of addressing the relationship between mind and body, especially the process of transformations from worldly person to Buddhahood. The vast theoretical systems relating to these issues warrant further study and exploration. This article, following the sequence of historical development in Indian Buddhism, examines the perspectives on body and mind in various supermundance stages of spiritual development, including the transformations of body and mind which occur as the worldly person attains supermundance stages. Through this examination of Buddhist perspectives on body and mind, the author hopes to contribute to society with regard to ways of protecting the spiritual environment and respecting humanity. In early Buddhism, the system of practice involved the triple discipline of morality, meditaion, and wisdom, as well as the four fruits: the fruit of stream-entry (sotāpatti-phala); the furit of once-return (skadāgāmi-phala); the furit of non-return (anāgāmi-phala); the fruit of arhatship (arahatta-phala). These four stages of practice-which involve cultivating the body, cultivating the mind, and dcultiviating wisdom-constitute the early Buddhist perspective of body and mind. In the Śrāvaka vehicle, the Sarvāstivāda school establishes a different sequence for supermundance stages, with three paths: 1. the path of seeing (path of streampentry)2.the path of practice (including fruit of stream entry, path of once-returning, fruit of once returning, path of non-returning, fruit of non-returning, and path of arhat); 3. the path of no further study 9the fruit of arhat). Regarding the stages of practice according to Sarvāstivādain treatises, for the worldly person there are three beneficial aspects which precede the path of seeing; 1.the aspect of according with merit, which includes generosity, morality, four unlimited states; 2. the aspect of according with liberation, which includes advanced enjoyment, i.e., enjoyment in seeking nirvāa and revulsion for sa?s?ra; 3. the aspect of choice according with wisdom, in which one is able to do the sixteen contemplations based on the four noble truths; this aspect precedes the path of seeing, and includes warmth, pinnacle, forbearance, and highest worldly wisdom. Having attained the stage of forbearance, it takes the practicioner approximately 1.8128 to 6.8128 seconds to enter the first supermundance stage, the path of seeing. This is Buddhism’s description of the transformation of the mind and body in the transformation from worldly to supmermundance stages. In the Bodhisattva vehicle, the Yogācāra school’s system of practice aligns the three stages (worldly, studying and no further study) with the three realms to describe thirteen types of person (pudgala). From this, numerous paths and systems of practice are constructed. In the “śrāvaka-bhūmi” chapter of the Yogācārabhūmi śāstra, the methods and stages of practice regarding the sixteen contemplations based on the four noble truths are explained in terms of the seven mental orientations: 1. understanding the characteristic; 2. the mental orientation arising from conviction; 3. seclusion; 4. analytical mental practices; 5. attraction of bliss; 6. the final stage of application; 7. the fruit of the final stage of application. Of these, the mental orientation arising from conviction corresponds with the Mahāvibhā a’s four stages of practice contained in the aspect of choice according with wisdom. The Mahāyāna-samgraha-bhāsya, Cheng weishi lun, and the Mahāyāna-sūtrālamkāra all agree that these four stages involve awakening to the nature of mind-only, and can be explained with the four types of sam ādhi.
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