Yuanwu Keqin's Chan Praxis -Teaching for Women
|Authors:||吳芬錦||Keywords:||圜悟克勤;女性佛教;宋代禪;公案禪;話頭禪;Yuanwu Keqin;Buddhist women;Song Chan;Kong-an Chan;Hau-t'ou Chan||Issue Date:||Jun-2019||Publisher:||法鼓文理學院||Journal:||法鼓佛學學報||Journal Issue:||24||Journal Pages:||61-90||Abstract:||佛教發展的過程中，長期處於父權社會的歴史背景之下，女眾參與佛教之修行、研究，乃至弘揚與傳承法脈，皆受到一定程度的壓仰。因此在佛教文獻上有關女眾的記載相對較少，然而宋代因佛教蓬勃發展，女性參與宗教活動也增加，這可反應於文獻中有關女眾的問法、修行記載較以前多。有關宋代女性佛教的研究有Miriam Levering宋代女禪師之教學指導、臨濟禪與性別研究，及大慧宗杲（1089－1163）對女眾弟子之教導等；另外還有Ding-hwa E. Hsieh有關宋代禪中女性形象之探討等研究。然過去鮮少特別針對圜悟克勤（1063－1135）禪師之禪法與其女弟子做深入的研究，因此本研究試圖由文獻分析克勤禪師如何運用公案禪之三種機用，指導這些女眾弟子，及當時女眾們學佛參禪之情形。克勤禪師依個人之根基，以三種機用引導學人參公案：第一教人直下承當，截斷思量；第二藉由提問引出學人疑竇，發根本無明；第三避免胡亂下註腳詮釋，應機教人參活句，不參死句。筆者由《圓悟佛果禪師語錄》、《佛果克勤禪師心要》、《五燈會元》發現克勤禪師曾對十四位出家及在家女弟子之禪法指導記錄，諸如：喬貴妃、大長公主、益國夫人、張國太夫人、若虛庵主、湧道者尼、照道人尼，覺庵道人祖氏、令人本明及范縣君等；後三位為法嗣女弟子，喬貴妃後來則成為大慧宗杲之法嗣。禪師依不同根基以三種機用鍛鍊這些女眾，而這些女性致力於修習禪法，贊助法會，護持道場，克服種種歷史、社會的不利因素，為宋代女性佛教寫下歷史性的一頁。
Much of Chinese Buddhist history developed within a patriarchal social framework, in which women were constrained in their practice, research, and propagation of Buddhism, and were therefore less likely to become Dharma heirs. Thus, there are fewer records of women than men in Buddhist literature. During the Song Dynasty, however, Buddhism was very popular and women increasingly participated in religious activities. This is reflected in historical records of the period, which include more frequent mention of women studying and practicing Chan than in earlier Buddhist literature. Miriam Levering's research about women teaching Chan during the Song, her observations about Linji Chan and gender, Tahui's teachings for women, and so on, and Ding-hwa E. Hsieh's studies about images of women in Song Chan are all valuable contributions. As of yet, however, there have been few studies that specifically discuss the practice of Chan master Yuanwu Keqin (1063-1135) and his teachings for nuns and laywomen. This paper analyzes literary sources is an attempt to understand Yuanwu's three methods of instructing female disciples, the unique characteristics of his teachings for women, and the Chan practice methods of his female disciples during the Song. Yuanwu used three distinct teaching approaches when instructing disciples in their practice and study of Chan, depending on the character and potential of the student. The first approach was straightforward: to mediate on crucial kong-an (koan) phrases, such as ＂sucking up the water of the western river in a breath＂. This method of instruction, which transcends reason and language, focusing directly on the mind, was for the sharpest students. The second approach involved questioning students and exposing their ignorance through a process of questioning, then pointing out the students' weak points. The third approach involved providing beginners with commentaries and notes to explain the kong-an or Dharma teaching in detail. Yuanwu's 14 female disciples are mentioned in the Yuanwu Fokuo Chanshi Yulu, Wudeng Huiyuan, and Fokuo Keqin Chan Shi Xin Yao. Most of these women were from families of high social status, for example, Senior Imperial Consort Jiāo, Senior Imperial Consort Wang, Princess Ta-chang, Madam Yi-gou, Madam Qing-gou, Madam Zhang Guo-tai, Madam Fang, Jue An Dao Ren Zu Shi, Ling Ren Ben Ming, and so on. The last three became Yuanwu's Dharma heirs, and the senior imperial consort Jiāo became the Dharma heir of Ta-hui. These female lay disciples supported Dharma gatherings, offered patronage to the sangha, and propagated the Dharma at the palace. They overcame the gender constraints of patriarchal history and society to practice and study Chan Buddhism. Yuanwu instructed these women in their investigation of kong-an by means of a three-fold method that depended solely on their talent, without gender discrimination. As a result, some of them achieved realization and became Dharma heirs. This paper will examine the methods of instruction that enabled these remarkable women to write an important page in the history of Song Dynasty Chan.
|Description:||收稿日期：2018/12/02；通過審核日期：2019/06/10。 本論文初稿，曾以英文發表於2015 年6 月24 日舉辦之研討會 “14th Sakyadhita International Conference on Buddhist Women”，題名 “Yuanwu Keqin’s Chan Praxis: Teaching for Women”。||URI:||http://172.27.2.131/handle/123456789/325||ISSN:||1996-8000|
|Appears in Collections:||學術出版組|
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