The Meaning and the Function of the Four Immeasurables in the Path of Liberation of Sarvāstivāda School ——Focus on the Vibhāsā Compendia
|Authors:||釋覺宏||Keywords:||四無量心;梵住;解脫次第;《婆沙論》;說一切有部;Four Immeasurable;Brahmavihāra（divine state of mind）;the Path of Liberation;Vibhāsā Compendia Sarvāstivāda School||Issue Date:||Feb-2015||Abstract:||在佛教發展史中，部派佛教是很重要的時期，其承接了早期佛教的思想，並影響後期佛教的發展。一般認為說一切有部的解脫次第，依次為資糧道、加行道、見道位、修道位與無學道，但這是否就是一個固定的模式，尚有討論的空間。又過去關於四無量心的研究大多數偏向無量解脫的討論，而對於四無量心與解脫次第的研究寥寥無幾。因此，本文希望討論四無量心與解脫次第的關係，以及四無量心在解脫次第的順序。此外，也探究根相應與四無量心禪定的關係。
Buddhist Scholasticism is a very important period within Buddhist history. It inherited the doctrine of early Buddhism and has a huge influence on the later development of Buddhism. It is said that the path of liberation of the “Sarvāstivāda School” is to be divided into five paths. They are “the Path of Equipment, the Path of Application, the Path of Vision, the Path of Cultivation, and the Path of the Adept”. However, whether it is a fixed module still requires more studies. Besides that, regarding the prior studies on the Four Immeasurables they focus more on the topic of the Immeasurable liberation, only few discussions on the path of liberation. Therefore, I try to clarify the relationship between Four Immeasurables and the Path of Liberation of “Sarvāstivāda School”. I would like to study on the connection between “Root”（skt：Indriya）and the “Dhyana” of the Four Immeasurable. Among the “Sarvāstivāda School” abhidharma literature texts, the three Chinese translation of Vibhāsā Compendia bear rich explanations of the Four Immeasurable comparing to others. Moreover, among the three translations Abhidharma Mahāvibhāsā Sāstra has the most complete discussion on the Four Immeasurable. Furthermore, previous studies do not consult the others two Abhidharma Vibhāsā Sāstra which are equally important. These are reasons why I choose the three Chinese translated texts as my primary source. Finally, some conclusions are drawn especially in relation to the main points discussed in the fourth part of the essay. I found that the Four Immeasurables are not only categorized as a “part of the Aid of Merit”, but also are endowed with other function, such as extent the life in the Path of the Adept. Moreover, the Aids to Merit and the Aids to Liberation could simultaneously accomplish, and so far the Path of Liberation had their fixed sequence. We also see the relationship between the Root and Four Immeasurables is affecting the Four Immeasurable in “Dhyana”.
|Appears in Collections:||佛教學系|
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