A Study of Zhi Qian’s Translations of Buddhist Texts in the Three Kingdoms Period
|Authors:||李周淵||Keywords:||經錄;音譯詞;原語;改譯;《大明度經》;《太子瑞應本起經》;Chinese Buddhist catalogue;transcription;source language;revision;Da mingdu jing;Taizi ruiying benqi jing||Issue Date:||Feb-2020||Abstract:||本論文的目的在於考察三國支謙譯經中的文獻問題，主要從四個角度展開，即：支謙譯經的經錄記載、支謙譯經的譯者歸屬、支謙譯經的原典語言以及支謙譯經對前人譯經的改譯現象。
The purpose of this thesis is to study Zhi Qian’s translation of Buddhist texts in the Three Kingdoms period, from the four perspectives: the Chinese Buddhist catalogue, attribution of the translation, the source language, and the phenomenon of Zhi Qian’s revision of the previous translators’ work. In terms of research methods, it mainly uses historical source analysis, comparative study of texts in different languages, Sanskrit-Chinese transcription research, measurement statistics. In terms of research materials, this study uses a variety of material sources. For example, when discussing language issues, it uses different editions, such as Dunhuang manuscript, ancient Japanese manuscript and carved editions from different dynasties. What is more, it also compars the materials in Sanskrit, Pāli, Gāndhārī, and other languages. When it comes to the attribution of the translation, not only external materials such as Chinese Buddhist catalogue and Biographies are used, but also a large number of internal materials, such as single words, short phrases, and even fragments which cannot form independent meaning. The conclusions of this research are as follows: In terms of Chinese Buddhist catalogue, the most reliable catalogue Chusanzang jiji出三藏記集 records numerous Zhi Qian's translations, but this is based on the materials which in some cases may not be reliable. Therefore, we should be more careful when we study Zhi Qian's translations based on Chusanzang jiji. In addition, there are some differences between the records of the first completed Chinese Buddhist catalogue, Chusanzang jiji, and the second one, Zhongjing mulu, which was compiled by Fajing in the Sui dynasty. Many of them can be confirmed by the citations from Lidai sanbao ji which was complied by Fei Zhangfang in the Tang dynasty. This means that if we want to have a more comprehensive understanding of Zhi Qian's translations, we should keep a more open attitude to examine the texts that are suspected to be translated by Zhi Qian. In terms of the attribution of the translations, the Bannihuan jing 般泥洹經(T6), Amituo sanyesanfo saloufotan guodu rendao jing 阿彌陀三耶三佛薩樓佛檀過度人道經 (T362), Weimojie jing 維摩詰經(T474) , Liaoben shengsi jing 了本生死經 (T708), and T225A the first chapter of Damingdu jing 大明度經 should all be treated as Zhi Qian’s translations. In terms of the of the source language, there are numerous transcriptions in Zhi Qian's translations, about 300 of which are not found in the works by previous translators. These transcriptions are important materials for the study of Chinese phonetics. By comparing the pronunciation of these transcriptions in the Eastern Han dynasty corresponding Sanskrit words, one can see that there is a big gap between them. It can be explained according to the general evolution law of Indian phonetics. Zhi Qian's translations are influenced by Indian Prakrit. It is particularly noteworthy that the source language of Zhi Qian's translations weakened its pronunciation compared with the Old Indian-Aryan language. In terms of the phenomenon of revision, we can draw an important conclusion that Zhi Qian adopted different measures to retranslate the texts. Scholars usually use the case of the Zhi Qian’s revision of Damingdu Jing to infer his preferences in translation. They thought that Zhi Qian prefers elegant translation style, prefers the form of four-character sentences and concise expression. Therefore, when determining the attribution of the translation of some texts, they assume that those texts are not translated by Zhi Qian because they do not meet this condition . For example, they thought T362 was not translated by Zhi Qian. In fact, this kind of preference can be only be found in some of the Zhi Qian’s translations. The revisions in Faju jing and Taizi ruiying benqi jing show that in some of his translations, Zhi Qian tried to make the Chinese texts closer to the Indian language, and tried to use scattered and changeable sentence patterns. Therefore, more possibilities need to be taken into account when discussing the style and the attribution of the Chinese Buddhist translations.
|Appears in Collections:||佛教學系|
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