The View of Kuan-ching in the Northern Dynasties: Based on the Xiaonanhai Caves and Jingying Huiyuan's Commentary of Kuan-ching
|Authors:||曾堯民||Keywords:||《觀無量壽經》;九品;小南海石窟;僧稠;淨影慧遠;Kuan-ching;Nine grades;Xiaonanhai Caves;Sengchou;Jingying Huiyuan||Issue Date:||1-Dec-2017||Journal:||中華佛學研究||Journal Issue:||18||Journal Pages:||41 - 81||Abstract:||《觀無量壽經》由畺良耶舍於五世紀上半葉翻譯於中國南方，受到中國僧俗關注並發揮影響力則始自六世紀中葉。最初關注《觀經》者為僧稠與淨影慧遠，前者透過小南海石窟中窟的浮雕，後者則為經典注疏。小南海中窟西壁的九品往生浮雕中，雖有九處浮雕，卻僅有七方榜題，其中三方榜題為上輩，對應著上輩三品；三方榜題為中輩，對應著中輩三品；一方榜題為下輩，與下輩三品無法對應。榜題沒有將下輩分別為上、中、下，而是僅以一方來表示所有下輩，此一表現方式亦見於慧遠的《觀無量壽經義疏》。《觀無量壽經義疏》對於上輩三品、中輩三品皆各自分為三類進行討論，但下輩並未分別為三，而以「未有道位，難辨階阩」進行說明。僧稠與慧遠對於九品，特別是下輩不分為三的表現方式，並不與經典的記載相符，原因在於二人以修行位階來理解九品。上輩為菩薩，有大乘菩薩修行位階相應，包含地上、地前三賢等凡聖；中輩為部派修行者，有四向四果修行位階相應，包含須陀洹等前三果、見道前內外凡等凡聖；下輩為造惡凡夫，沒有修行或修行未有成果，沒有可資對應的位階，因此無需與無法分別為三。僧稠、慧遠根據修行位階來理解與表現九品，與當時佛教僧侶對於修行位階的探究，並進行體系化有關。二人對於《觀經》的理解體現著時代性，並使我們瞭解《觀經》除了往生淨土外，更與修行禪觀有著深厚的關係。
Kuan-ching translated by Kalayasas in the first half of fifth century in South China was first noticed by Sengchou, who later participated in engraving the Xiaonanhai Caves, and Jingying Huiyuan, who wrote the earliest commentary on Kuan-ching. Both of their works appeared in the second half of the sixth century. Out of nine engravings, which is corresponding to the nine grades, on the western wall in the Central Cave of the Xiaonanhai Caves, only seven inscriptions were made. Three of them were made to correspond to the upper three grades, another three of them the middle three grades, and the last one is for the lower grade. Meanwhile, on ＂nine grades＂ as suggested in Huiyuan's Commentary of Kuan-ching, he also interpreted upper and middle grades with three categories respectively and lower grades with only one category. The Xiaonanhai Caves and Huiyuan's Commentary of Kuan-ching represented the lower grade differently from Kuan-ching. Their interpretation of grades based on the levels of practices in relation to Arhat and Bodhisattva reflects a contemporary thought on the systematization of the practiced classes.
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