The Relationship between Mind and Body in Buddhism and Its Modern Significance
|Authors:||釋惠敏||Keywords:||五蘊;十二處;十八;六界;生死學;安寧療護;臨終關懷;覺性;身心輕安;心一境性;所依清淨;所緣清淨;滅盡定;Skandhas;Āyatanas;Dhātus;Thanatology;Hospice care;Terminal care;Awareness;Pliancy and serenity in mind and body;One-pointedness of mind;Absorption of cessation||Issue Date:||Jul-2004||Publisher:||法鼓人文社會學院||Journal:||法鼓人文學報||Journal Issue:||1||Journal Pages:||179-219||Abstract:||佛教對於身心關係（mind-body）的議題，並不以「二元論」、「一元論」或「身心一如」等主體性、實體性的論究為目的，而是以五蘊（skandha）、十二處（[93bb]yatana）、十八界或六界（dh[93bb]tu）的法門，教導不同根機的眾生，正確地觀察其無常性、無我性，認識身心的相依關係，破除對「自我」是恆常不變、獨自存在的執著，體証「身心解脫」。 在「生死學」（Thanatology）的領域，以及「安寧療護」（Hospice Care）之「臨終關懷」（terminal care）的理論與實務，佛教之身心關係的理論與修行經驗，對於死亡的過程中「地、水、火、風、空」之「五大」配合色、受、想、行、識等「五蘊」，依序分解的描述，不僅與醫學觀察有相互呼應之處，也可成為面對人生最後階段（terminal phase of life）的智慧。 安寧照顧（Hospice）的運動起源於基督宗教團體，一般說到「全人照顧」時，也大都是指「身、心、靈」的完整醫療照顧，因而有「靈性照顧」（spiritual care）的理念與工作的推行。相對於「即」身心之說，而可能引伸只重視延長生命之治癒性治療，或主張安樂死之兩種癌症末期的處理態度，它是建立於「離」身心之外，別有超越身體與思想之「靈性」存在的主張。 但是，「即」身心之說或者「離」身心之外，別有恒常不變性之「靈性「眞我」之生命觀，都是與佛教之「無我論」、「緣起論」不同的，因為生命的本質是「不即不離」身心，所以，生命之眞理不能說是斷滅性，亦不能說是恒常性。依據此種中道思想，不於身心之外別立「靈」，而以眞理、法則、義務等「法」作為最高的覺察對象。又因「受」是「心」的導向要素，所以也特別重視「受」（苦樂生滅變化），這與安寧照顧強調控制疼痛，解除不適症狀有呼應之處。所以，學習認識自己的身、受、心、法等四方面，使「覺性」（念，awareness）敏銳且穩定（住）。此種「覺性照顧」之練習可用於淨化臨終者的心念，也是佛教的基本修習法門。 依《瑜伽師地論》〈聲聞地〉，可知佛教禪定學之身心關係是：身心輕安（pra□rabdhi）的增長和心一境性（ek[93bb]grat[93bb]）的增長乃相互影響。其次，一方面，伴隨身心輕安的增長，生起轉依，即所依（身心）清淨。另一方面，伴隨心一境性的增長，超越影像，對所知事生起無分別、現量智見，成為所緣清淨（[93bb]lambana-pari□uddhi），此可說是禪定成就的兩項指標。 如上所論之佛教的身心關係的理論與運用的經驗，是有助於現代社會對於生命科學的探討。
Buddhism’s position regarding the relationship between mind and body does not involve a substantialist approach, such as “dualism,” “monism,” or “unity of mind and body.”Rather, Buddhism employs the teachings of the Five Skandhas, Twelve □yatanas, and Eighteen (or six) Dh(96bb)tus to teach sentient beings of varying capacities, accurately observe sentient beings’ understanding of impermanence and non-self, become familiar with the mutually dependent relationship between mind and body, break and remove the attachment to an eternal, unchanging “self,” and experience mental and physical liberation. Relating to Tjanatology, and the theory and practice of terminal hospice care, Buddhism also deals with the relationship between mind and body with its theory and experiences resulting from cultivation. Buddhism’s description of the process through which the five elements (earth, water, fire, wind, and space) and the five skandhas (material, perception, feeling, karmic formations, and consciousness)break down not only has some similarities with medical observations, it can also become wisdom for the terminal phase of life. Hospice care originates with Christian religious organizations. When the expression “caring for the entire person” is used, this usually implies caring for the body, mind, and spirit. From this, the concept of “spiritual care” has been developed into an occupation. This contrasts with the theory of “identity” with mind and body only, which may focus on either extending the lifespan or advocating euthanasia in the terminal stage of a cancer patient’s life. Spiritual care is thus established on something “transcending” mind and body, involving the existence of a “spirit,” which transcends the mind and thought. However, whether we speak of “identity” with mind and body, or a spirit which “transcends” them, this implies the view of an eternal soul, or self, which is different from Buddhism’s theory of non-self and conditioned arising. Buddhism’s view of life supports neither identity nor transcendence, therefore, the truth of life is neither annihilationist nor eternalist. Based on this middle way, a soul cannot be established outside of mind and body; rather, “Dharma” (truth, law, and duty) should serve as the highest objects of perception. Also, because “perception” is an element leading the “mind,” it is especially emphasized (unpleasant, pleasant, arising, changing, cessation, and change). This is similar to hospice’s emphasis on controlling pain and eliminating uncomfortable symptoms. Therefore, learning to be aware of one’s body, perception, mind, and mental objects causes one’s awareness to become sharp and stable. Practicing this type of “awareness care” can be used to purify the thoughts of the terminal patient; it is also the basic method of practice in Buddhism. According to “□r(96bb)vaka bh□mi” chapter of the Yog(96bb)c(96bb)rabh□mi, the relationship of mind and body in Buddhist meditation involves the fact that the growth of pliancy and serenity (pra□rabdhi) in mind and body and the growth of the one-pointedness of mind (ek(96bb)rat(96bb)) mutually influence each other. As pliancy and serenity in mind and body increases, a transformation of support (mind and body)occurs, in which the object of support is pure. As one-pointedness of mind increases, mental objects are transcended, and the wisdom of non-discrimination and direct perception arises with respect to the object of meditation or knowledge; thereby objects of perception become pure ((96bb)lambana-pari□uddhi). These are two indicators of accomplishment in Buddhist concentration. The above describes the experience of the theory and application of the relationship between mind and body in Buddhism, which may be helpful to modern society’s discussion of the science of life.
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