An Investigation of Dependent-arising and Relativity in Chapter X of Candrakīrti's Prasannapadā
|Authors:||釋如一||Keywords:||觀待緣起;薪火品;相互依存;月稱;Dependent-arising and Relativity;Agnīndhanaparīkṣā;interdependency;Candrakīrti||Issue Date:||Jun-2017||Abstract:||自釋尊在菩提樹下證悟發見緣起之後，緣起即成為佛教的主要核心教義之一。釋尊說法因應眾生的根機，所說的緣起法面向也有所不同，而產生了種種的緣起說。由於「緣起」（pratītyasamutpāda）是一個較複雜的複合語，從語詞的解釋上，就產生諸多不同的說法，而有了十二緣起、賴耶緣起等思想的開展。活躍於七世紀印度大乘佛教時期的論師月稱（Candrakīrti），乃是傳承印度中觀應成派（Prāsaṅgika）的論師，在其所著作的《明句論》（Prasannapadā）中提到，「中觀論者即是緣起論者」。從他的宣稱中，可以看出月稱對於緣起義應該有其相當程度的體悟，才會有如此義正詞嚴的宣告。
Since he attained enlightenment under the Bodhi tree, the Buddha had given the teaching of dependent origination (pratītyasamutpāda), and thus it has become part of the core doctrine of Buddhism. The buddha had always taught the Dharma according to the intellectual level of his students. Therefore, one could find different facets regarding the explanation of dependent origination taught by the Buddha. Consequently, Buddhist scholars from different eras have come up with different interpretations and this leads to vast discussions among scholars even until today. And since the Sanskrit word for dependent origination (pratītyasamutpāda) is a fairly complex compound, its philological analysis has led to various interpretations and understandings. As a result, ideas such as the "twelve links of dependent originations", and "dependent origination based upon ālaya conciousness" are developed.Candrakīrti (600-650) was a reknown Indian Mahayana Buddhist scholar belonged to the Prāsaṅgika school of Mādhyamika. In his Prasannapadā, it is mentioned that "The Mādhyamikas are the expounder of dependent origination."This statement may just reveal the deep and profound understanding of the meaning of dependent origination the author had in order to make the claim. Thus, based upon the interpretation of dependent origination found in Abhidharmakośakārikā, which caries the meaning of "reach" (prāpti), Candrakīrti expanded its definition by including the meaning of "dependence on" (apekṣā) into the compound. Moreover, in Madhyamakāvatāra-nāma, Candrakīrti used the idea that "The concept of a car arises from the combination of smaller parts such as wheel and etc." as a metaphor, in order to show that anything that is made from its own parts is lack of an inherent nature and its very existence relies upon the interdependency of all of its parts. As a matter of fact, the philosophical inclination of Indian Buddhist scholars tend to reflect the development of various Buddhist thoughts at a specific time and location. This paper studies and translates the Chapter of 'Agnīndhanaparīkṣā' from Prasannapadā. Through a better understanding of the termed "dependence on" (apekṣā) rendered by Candrakīrti, followed by research into Candrakīrti's explanation of "Dependent-arising and Relativity", this paper attempts to clarify the role of Buddhist ideology and its impact to the development of Indian philosophy at that specific period.
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